Presidential powers; calling-out power. Petitioners contend that the President unlawfully exercised emergency powers when she ordered the deployment of AFP and PNP personnel in the Provinces of Maguindanao and Sultan Kudarat and the City of Cotabato.

Res judicata or res iudicata (RJ) is the Latin term for “a matter [already] judged”, and may refer to two things: in both civil law and common law legal systems, a case in which there has been a final judgment and is no longer subject to appeal.[1]; and the term is also used to refer to the legal doctrine meant to bar (or preclude) continued litigation of such cases between the same parties, which is different between the two legal systems. In this latter usage, the term is synonymous with “preclusion”.

local Government Code; double taxation; definition; elements. Double taxation means taxing the same property twice when it should be taxed only once; that is, “taxing the same person twice by the same jurisdiction for the same thing.”